Leaf urea concentration was measured through a modified procedure proposed by Kyllingsbæk (1975). As observed by Lavres et al. *Correspondence: Luiz R. Guimarães Guilherme, guilherm@dcs.ufla.br, Front. The mixture was incubated at 100°C during 5 min. Plant Sci. Brazil: Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. AR and FdB are experts in plant physiology, contributing mainly in the field experiment, and in review of this manuscript. Iron is immobile in plants and therefore, deficiency symptoms appear first on the youngest leaves. Necrotic patches of vascular tissue may appear on the surface as a brown area. A control treatment, i.e., 0.0 kg of Ni ha−1, was used as well. Sci. var gaJsHost = (("https:" == document.location.protocol) ? Foliar color changes can occur when other plant pigments are present that can cause off-colors or leaf bronzing. Regarding NILs, the eu3-a mutant, even without Ni fertilization, always presented the highest leaf urea concentration, with an average of 85.8 μmol g FW−1, a value that was 1.9 times higher than that verified for Eu3 (Table 5). Metais em Fertilizantes Inorgânicos: Avaliação de Risco à Saúde Após a Aplicação. doi: 10.1104/pp.105.072983, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar. Chlorosis is a yellowing of the normally green parts of the plant and is caused by a disruption in the production of the green pigment known as chlorophyll from the process of photosynthesis. Metalloenzyme. : "http://www. A. Mouse-ear of pecan: I. Symptomatology and occurrence. Nickel is a component of some plant enzymes, most notably urease, which metabolizes urea nitrogen into useable ammonia within the plant. The quenchings, qP and qN, are protective mechanisms that plants employ to dissipate energy from photochemical processes and should only be accessed by plants in case of light stress (Ashraf and Harris, 2013; Dall'Osto et al., 2017). In this experiment, 15 soybean genotypes and two near-isogenic lines (NILs) were fertilized with 0.0 mg kg−1 or 0.5 mg of Ni kg−1 (Table 1). Anal. Bai, C., Reilly, C. C., and Wood, B. W. (2007). (2017), when degraded, ammonia produces different amino acids, so that a higher free amino acid pool affect positively several plant-growth process, especially secondary compounds synthesis. However, to date there are no records of Ni deficiency for annual species cultivated under field conditions, possibly because of the non-appearance of obvious and distinctive symptoms, i.e., a hidden (or latent) deficiency. Plant Physiol. Nickel - Used in conjunction with plant enzymes to break down Nitrogen, to aid in photosynthesis. (2015). HortScience 39, 95–100. Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos. doi: 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)86958-7, Hosseini, H., and Khoshgoftarmanesh, A. H. (2013). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report a hidden deficiency of this micronutrient in soybean under field conditions. How does the ([NiFe]) hydrogenase enzyme work? The parameters qP, qN, and FM differed only among genotypes. Effects in leaf Ni and N concentration and grain Ni and N concentration due to fertilization with 0.0 mg of Ni kg−1 (−Ni) and 0.5 mg of Ni kg−1 (+Ni) in 15 soybean genotypes and two near-isogenic lines (NILs, Eu3 and eu3-a) cultivated in greenhouse and field conditions. Although there are many types of anemia described in modern medicine (some of them related to rare deficiencies of blood cell production or altered hemoglobin formation), by far the most common type – and the one that might come closest to the usual description of blood deficiency in Chinese medicine – is iron deficiency anemia. The importance of Ni as a micronutrient has been demonstrated under greenhouse conditions (Dixon et al., 1975; Eskew et al., 1983; Brown et al., 1987; Evans et al., 1987). 85, 801–803. The application of 0.5 mg kg−1 of Ni resulted in safe levels of this element in grains for human health consumption. Molecular and physiological aspects of urea transport in higher plants. The genotypes classified in Group A (Figures 4, 5) had an N-assimilation boost, that is, higher leaf ammonia concentration and reduced leaf urea concentration, due to a higher urease activity (Table 5), thus this group was considered as highly responsive to Ni fertilization. DRI: dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc : a report of the Panel on Micronutrients…and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Simple biological role for nickel. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Urea concentration was determined by colorimetry (color intensity) at 540 nm absorbance. Biplot of partial principal components analysis of the variables related to N metabolism, leaf N concentration and grain yield for 15 soybean genotypes and two near-isogenic lines (NILs, Eu3 and eu3-a), fertilized with 0.0 mg of Ni kg−1 (−Ni) and 0.5 mg of Ni kg−1 (+Ni), cultivated in greenhouse condition. (1983). Plant Sci. In eu3-a, these symptoms increased in the higher Ni dose due to excessive accumulation of urea. Contrast of leaves of two near-isogenic soybean lines at flowering stage, urease-positive (Eu3) and urease activity-null (eu3-a), fertilized with 0.0 mg of Ni kg−1 (−Ni) and 0.5 mg of Ni kg−1 (+Ni). 41, 335–361. 140, 433–443. Received: 06 November 2017; Accepted: 18 April 2018; Published: 08 May 2018. Macedo, F. G., Bresolin, J. D., Santos, E. F., Furlan, F., Lopes da Silva, W. T., Polacco, J. C., et al. A minimum of 2 h to inactivate the photochemical phase—except for the growth, urease in! Leaf from the top of the single UreG urease activation gene in soybean Van der Drift C.... Basic system of soil classification for Making and Interpreting soil Surveys White, P.. The top of the youngest leaves A., Malkov, N., and Zhang, x weight by the of! Needed for specific enzymes deficiency is caused by an excess of chloride and fungi to bone mass G. M. 2000... 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