(Tsunami models did an excellent job of predicting when the tsunami would hit Hawaii or California, hours after the earthquake.) Brenda. ", Liquefaction driving away Chiba residents, Tokyo Disneyland's parking lot shows the risk of reclaimed land, "Japan Earthquake May Have Shifted Earth's Axis", "Magnitude 7.1 – NEAR THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN", "Fresh quake triggers tsunami warning in Japan", "Four dead as new tremor hits Japan disaster zone", "At least 6 killed in new Japan earthquake", "USGS 10-degree Map Centered at 35°N,140°E of earthquakes of magnitude 4.5 or over", "Aftershocks Associated With Impaired Health Caused by the Great East Japan Disaster Among Youth Across Japan: A National Cross-Sectional Survey Interact J Med Res 2013;2(2):e31", "Alert sounded a minute before the tremor struck", 経験則からのずれ ―はじめの数秒と強震動:τc, Pd,スペクトル,簡易震源域推定方法―, "Earthquake Early Warning and Tsunami Warning of JMA for the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake", "Tsunami warnings issued for at least 20 countries after quake", "Distance between Dichato, Chile and Sendai, Japan is 17228km", "Chile Lifts Tsunami Alerts After Japan Quake Spawns Waves", "Chilean site: (Tsunami) waves penetrated 70–100 m in different parts of the country", "Tsunami Information (Estimated Tsunami arrival time and Height)", Helmholtz Research Centre for Geosciences, Japan's tsunami victims only had 15 minutes warning, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Japan tsunami: Toll could rise to more than 1,300, "News: Tsunami rolls through Pacific, Sendai Airport under water, Tokyo Narita closed, Pacific region airports endangered", "10-meter tsunami observed in area near Sendai in Miyagi Pref", "Japan 8.9-magnitude earthquake sparks massive tsunami", "Earthquake, tsunami wreak havoc in Japan", Tsunami hit more than 100 designated evacuation sites, "9,500 unaccounted for in Miyagi's Minamisanriku: local gov't", "東北地方太平洋沖地震を教訓とした地震・津波対策に関する専門調査会中間とりまとめ", U.S. rescue teams find devastation in northern city of Ofunato, "Whole towns gone-no cars or people seen", "Honderden doden in Japanse kuststad (Hundreds dead in Japanese coastal town)" (in Dutch), "Japan army says 300–400 bodies found in Rikuzentakata: Report", Miyagi coastal whaling port pulverized, little more than memory, 'Nothing can prepare you to witness this', Tsunami Slams Japan After Record Earthquake, Killing Hundreds, "Japan disaster: 30 powerful images of the earthquake and tsunami", Survivors on cut-off isle were ready for disaster, Tsunami Information NUMBER 64 (Tsunami Observation), "Tsunami Information NUMBER 64(Tsunami Observations)", "Executive Summary of Urgent Field Survey of Earthquake and Tsunami Disasters by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku Earthquake", "Researchers: 30-meter tsunami in Ofunato", "38-meter-high tsunami triggered by 11 March quake: survey", Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, "東北地方太平洋沖地震による津波被害を踏まえた津波警報の改善の方向性について(最終とりまとめ)", "Evacuate all coastal areas immediately, Hawaii Civil Defense says", "Text of PTWC Pacific-wide tsunami warning", "Tsunami from Japanese quake prompts evacuation of 11,000 residents on Russia's Pacific islands", "Tsunami Warning and Advisory No. Kyodo News, "Survivors in trauma after life-changing nightmare day". Be sure to include lots of info. For example, power plants were protected by seawalls 25 feet high. [387], Also, following the earthquake, for the first time in Japanese history, the Emperor addressed the nation in a pre-recorded television broadcast.[388][389]. Robert Abuse. [194][195] There was a great deal of damage to buildings on the islands and one man was injured but there were no reported fatalities. [341] Four trains on coastal lines were reported as being out of contact with operators; one, a four-car train on the Senseki Line, was found to have derailed, and its occupants were rescued shortly after 8 am the next morning. [151][152][153][154][155][156][157] The most severe effects of the tsunami were felt along a 670-kilometre-long (420 mi) stretch of coastline from Erimo, Hokkaido, in the north to Ōarai, Ibaraki, in the south, with most of the destruction in that area occurring in the hour following the earthquake. It could take months or years to learn how damaging the release of dangerous isotopes has been to human health and food supplies, and to the surrounding countryside. [93], The Earth's axis shifted by estimates of between 10 cm (4 in) and 25 cm (10 in). The earthquake triggered powerful tsunami waves that may have reached heights of up to 40.5 meters (133 ft) in Miyako in Tōhoku's Iwate Prefecture,[34][35] and which, in the Sendai area, traveled at 700 km/h (435 mph)[36] and up to 10 km (6 mi) inland. [80], Most of the foreshocks are interplate earthquakes with thrust-type focal mechanisms. The Japan Digital Archive is presented in English and Japanese and is hosted at the Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Thousands of lives were lost and entire towns were devastated. [352] Immediately after the earthquake cellular communication was jammed across much of Japan due to a surge of network activity. On March 11, 2011, a 9.1 magnitude earthquake occurred 231 miles northeast of Tokyo. [396], Researchers have also analysed the economic effects of this earthquake and have developed models of the nationwide propagation via interfirm supply networks of the shock that originated in the Tōhoku region.[397][398]. [285], An analyst estimates that consumption of various types of oil may increase by as much as 300,000 barrels (48,000 m3) per day (as well as LNG), as back-up power plants burning fossil fuels try to compensate for the loss of 11 GW of Japan's nuclear power capacity. [194][196], After a 2 m (6 ft 7 in) high surge hit Chile, it was reported that the reflection from those surges traveled back across the Pacific, causing a 30–60 cm (12–24 in) surge in Japan, 47–48 hours after the earthquake, according to observation from multiple tide stations [ja], including in Onahama, Owase, and Kushimoto. The tremors were the result of a violent uplift of the sea floor 80 miles off the coast of Sendai, where the Pacific tectonic plate slides beneath the plate Japan sits on. At 2:46 pm (0546 GMT) of March 11, 2011, a 9.0-magnitude underwater quake struck the Pacific seabed roughly 130 kilometres (80 miles) east of Japan's Miyagi prefecture. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. In Ishinomaki alone, there were 17 trash collection sites 180 metres (590 ft) long and at least 4.5 metres (15 ft) high. On March 11, the very large size of the earthquake was recognized quickly (from the seismic data) and the Japanese Meteorological Agency fortunately took no chances and put out a tsunami warning three … There was a tsunami in the Indian Ocean in 2004, which killed at least 230,000 people, but it did not affect Japan. [131], The earthquake took place at 14:46 JST (UTC 05:46) around 67 kilometres (42 mi) from the nearest point on Japan's coastline, and initial estimates indicated the tsunami would have taken 10 to 30 minutes to reach the areas first affected, and then areas farther north and south based on the geography of the coastline. [5][65] Following the main earthquake on 11 March, a 7.4 Mw aftershock was reported at 15:08 JST (6:06 UTC), succeeded by a 7.9 Mw at 15:15 JST (6:16 UTC) and a 7.7 Mw at 15:26 JST (6:26 UTC). [327][328] Tōhoku Electric Power Co. stated this may have been due to radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accidents but was not from the Onagawa plant itself. [296] On 14 March it was reported that a cooling system pump for this reactor had stopped working;[330] however, the Japan Atomic Power Company stated that there was a second operational pump sustaining the cooling systems, but that two of three diesel generators used to power the cooling system were out of order. [276] The public and other companies were also encouraged to conserve electricity in the 2011 summer months (Setsuden). A magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck in the Pacific Ocean off the northeast coast of the Tōhoku region of Japan’s Honshu island on March 11, 2011. Tsunami waves smashed the coast, causing massive damage and flooding. Around what area did the tsunami take place. 1. Kansai Electric Power Company (Kepco) could not share electricity, because its system operated at 60 hertz, whereas TEPCO and TEP operate their systems at 50 hertz; the disparity is due to early industrial and infrastructure development in the 1880s that left Japan without a unified national power grid. The latest report from the Japanese National Police Agency report confirms 15,899 deaths,[47] 6,157 injured,[48] and 2,529 people missing[49] across twenty prefectures, and a report from 2015 indicated 228,863 people were still living away from their home in either temporary housing or due to permanent relocation. A ship washed ashore during the 2011 Japan tsunami lies amidst wreckage in Kesennuma, Miyagi, Japan. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [75] The hypocentral region of this earthquake extended from offshore Iwate Prefecture to offshore Ibaraki Prefecture. Fishing equipment was scattered on the high cliff above the bay. Such discrepancies in the warning were attributed by the JMA to the system's inability to distinguish between two different earthquakes that happened at around same time, as well as to the reduced number of reporting seismometers due to power outages and connection fails. [266], Tōhoku Electric Power was not able to provide the Kanto region with additional power because TEP's power plants were also damaged in the earthquake. [12][32][33] [11][64] On 11 July 2016, the USGS further upgraded the earthquake to 9.1. [249][250], An estimated 230,000 automobiles and trucks were damaged or destroyed in the disaster. [35] This height is deemed the record in Japan historically, as of reporting date, that exceeds 38.2 metres (125 ft) from the 1896 Meiji-Sanriku earthquake. Thwere was no tsunami in Japan in 2004. [39] Those areas of Japan closest to the epicenter experienced the largest shifts. Answer Save. However, the estimated intensities were smaller than the actual ones in some places, especially in Kanto, Koshinetsu, and Northern Tōhoku regions where the populace warning did not trigger. The warning system was supposed to be updated about 15 minutes after the earthquake occurred, by which time the calculation for the moment magnitude scale would normally be completed. Peak electricity consumption recorded by TEPCO during the period was 49.22GW, which is 10.77GW (18%) lower than the peak consumption in the previous year. [121], An upthrust of 6 to 8 metres (20 to 26 ft) along a 180 kilometres (110 mi) wide seabed at 60 kilometres (37 mi) offshore from the east coast of Tōhoku[122] resulted in a major tsunami that brought destruction along the Pacific coastline of Japan's northern islands. c. Nuclear Meltdown in 2011 Earthquake in Japan. -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-Please watch: "Natural disasters" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e4znwUhSyGo-~-~~-~~~-~~-~-#NaturalDisasters#Japan#Tsunami Around what area did the tsunami take place. [272] By 21 March 2011, the number of households in the north without electricity fell to 242,927. Services on Yamagata Shinkansen resumed with limited numbers of trains on 31 March. The 11 March 2011, magnitude 9.0 Honshu, Japan earthquake (38.322 N, 142.369 E, depth 32 km) generated a tsunami observed over the Pacific region and caused tremendous local devastation. Second warning also largely destroyed was Rikuzentakata, Where the tsunami waves struck the coasts of California and Oregon North... By emergency diesel generators at the plants and at Rokkasho Nuclear reprocessing plant material and debris Japan!, three Japan ground Self-Defense Force members had died while conducting relief operations in Tōhoku were damaged handle... 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